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平行结构详解

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  一、连词连接两个对等的词和对等的结构并列连词and, but, as well as, or, or else, both … and, neither … nor, either … or, not only … but (also),

  rather than等以及从属连词than可连接两个对等的词和对等的结构。

  1.所连接的谓语形式必须一致

  例1:He went downtown, bought some books and visited his daughter.

  例2:Gunpowder was discovered in the twelfth century, but not used in warfare until two hundred years later.

  2.所连接的词或短语形式必须一致

  例1:Your semester grade is based not only on how well you do on each test, but also on how you participate in

  class.

  例2:We often go to the countryside as well as to factories.

  例3:I would much rather go to the countryside than stay here.

  3.连接的非谓语动词的形式必须一致

  例1:Some find swimming more enjoyable than sitting at home reading.

  例2:He was engaged in writing a letter rather than reading the newspaper.

  4.所连接的句子结构必须一致

  例1:She is pleased with what you have given and all that you have told him.

  例2:The purpose of the research had a more different meaning for them than it did for us.

  二、某些特定的固定结构。例如:

  (1)有些词后要用平行结构。例如:

  prefer sth to sth

  prefer doing sth to doing sth

  prefer to do sth rather than do sth

  1) I prefer rice to noodles.

  2)I prefer watching TV to listening to music.

  3) He preferred to die rather than surrender.

  (2)有些结构中要用平行结构。例如:

  would / had rather / sooner do something than do something, would / had as soon do something as do something

  (宁可……也不……)

  1) Liu Hulan said she had rather die than give up.

  2) I would as soon stay at home as go.

  III 部分强调句

  要强调句子的某一部分,可以把句子的结构改变一下,通常有两种表示强调的句式:It is / was … that …结构和What … is

  / was…结构。

  一、It is / was … that … 结构

  1.It is / was … that … 结构可以用来强调句子中几乎任何部分

  例1:It was my mother that threw an egg at Mr. Li yesterday.

  例2:It was Mr. Li that my mother threw an egg at yesterday.

  2.被强调的部分指人时,可用who枵whom

  强调主语时,如果指的是人, 可以不用that而用who来代替。强调宾语时,如果指点的是人,可用whom.例如:

  1)It was the dean who walked by.

  2)It was Mary whom the old lady missed most.

  3被强调部分指物时,要用that

  例如:It was an egg that my mother threw at Mr. Li yesterday.

  4.被强调部分是状语时,也只能用that,不能用when或where.

  例1:It is during his spare time that John has been studying a course in French.

  例2:It was in the hall that the mayor held the press conference.

  5.不能用It is / was … that 结构强调动词

  强调动词常用do,过去式用did.例如:

  1) They did study very hard yesterday.

  2) He does look forward to making the acquaintance of her.

  What … is / was … 结构

  二、What … is / was … 结构常用来强调主语或宾语,在这种结构中,is/ was后面是强调的部分。例如:

  1)What hurts is my left leg.

  2)What I like is her style.


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